Bilotti, Thomas (1940-1985)

Born Staten Island, NY, March 23, 1940.
Killed Manhattan, NY, Dec. 16, 1985.

An intensely loyal lieutenant of Gambino Crime Family boss Paul "Big Paul" Castellano, Thomas Bilotti was murdered Dec. 16, 1985, along with Castellano in front of Sparks Steak House in Manhattan.

Bilotti was born to Anthony and Lillian Rosso Bilotti in Staten Island in 1940. He was raised in Staten Island and was a resident there early in 1970, when he received his first serious notice from the police and the press.

Thirty-year-old Bilotti, resident of 33 Kensington Avenue, Staten Island, was arrested with Thomas Papanier, 25, of Villa Avenue, Staten Island, after a shooting in Jamesburg, New Jersey. African-American teenager Emory Parks of Sheridan Street suffered superficial injuries when he was struck in the back of his head by bird-shot pellets. Bilotti and Papanier were arrested as they ran from the scene of the shooting and were observed discarding firearms.

It was a time of significant racial tension in the Jamesburg area, after riots at the local high school. Police from Spotswood and Monroe Township were on alert, permitting the quick arrest of Bilotti and Papanier. While police believed the two men were responsible for the injuries to Emory Parks, they were initially charged with carrying a concealed weapon, carrying a pistol without a permit and failing to secure a permit to purchase a pistol. A Middlesex County grand jury indicted the duo only for illegal possession of concealed weapons.

Bilotti became a fierce enforcer for Paul Castellano and the Gambino-Castellano faction of the crime family. He was understandably unpopular with a lingering faction that had been forced from power with Albert Anastasia's 1957 assassination. It appears that the Anastasia wing supported boss Carlo Gambino with the understanding that one of their own would succeed Gambino. Their hopes were dashed when Paul Castellano took over the crime family following the 1976 death of his brother-in-law Gambino. Peace within the family was preserved as Aniello Dellacroce, leader of the opposition and an underworld powerhouse in Manhattan, was selected as Castellano's underboss. Dellacroce kept his followers loyal to the Castellano regime for nine years.

During that time, Bilotti served as Castellano's primary driver, bodyguard and most trusted lieutenant. In 1980, Castellano build a palatial mansion for himself at 177 Benedict Road atop Todt Hill in Staten Island. Bilotti moved into a less ostentatious home just a few minutes away. Bilotti worked closely with Salvatore Barbato in providing security for Castellano and his estate. Bilotti and Castellano both regularly vacationed at Pompano Beach, Florida.

Dellacroce's death on Dec. 2, 1985, was followed by two major Castellano missteps. The crime family boss did not attend Dellacroce's funeral, a decision viewed as profoundly disrespectful. And he quickly and unilaterally elevated his aide Bilotti to the position of underboss. Castellano was getting on in years and faced a number of serious federal charges. Dellacroce followers, then led by John J. Gotti, understood that either death or prison would soon remove the boss. But Bilotti's presence as heir apparent would shut their faction out of the crime family leadership for yet another generation.

Castellano had lost much of his underworld prestige as the long-term bugging of his home office by the FBI had recently been revealed. Bilotti was still widely feared but many saw him as lacking in leadership qualities. Gotti found extensive support for his plan to remove both men from administration of the crime family. He appears to have arranged with Salvatore Gravano and Frank DeCicco for the Dec. 16 hit outside of Sparks.

Bilotti's life ended Dec. 16, 1985,
on New York's 46th Street

At about 5:30 p.m., Castellano's black Lincoln, with Bilotti driving, stopped in a no parking zone on 46th Street in front of the restaurant. As Bilotti and Castellano emerged from opposite sides of the car, three men in trenchcoats quickly approached on foot and opened fire at close range with semiautomatic pistols. Both targets were hit repeatedly in their heads and torsos. Castellano collapsed on the sidewalk behind the open passenger-side car door. Bilotti sprawled into the street. The gunmen jogged away on 46th Street, climbing into a waiting getaway car at Second Avenue.

With boss and underboss eliminated, John Gotti seized for himself the top spot in the Gambino Crime Family and selected Frank DeCicco as his second in command. Bilotti and Castellano were buried in Moravian Cemetery at New Dorp, Staten Island.


  • Dileva, Anthony V., "La Cosa Nostra: The Historical Sicilian Mafia's Influence on American Organized Crime," Project Report in partial fulfillment of requirements for Master of Science degree, California State University, Long Beach, CA, 2006, p. 81-85.
  • Michael DiLeonardo testimony, United States of America v. John A. Gotti, Jr., U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, Feb. 22, 2006.
  • O'Brien, Joseph F., and Andris Kurins, Boss of Bosses, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
  • Social Security Applications and Claims Index, Oct. 1958.
  • Social Security Death Index.
  • "Thomas Bilotti," Find A Grave,, July 17, 1999.

  • McCarthy, George, "Jamesburg youth shot, two held," Asbury Park (NJ) Press, April 29, 1970, p. 1.
  • "Jamesburg quiet after outbreaks," Asbury Park (NJ) Press, April 30, 1970, p. 1.
  • "Jury to get case of duo in shooting," Asbury Park (NJ) Press, May 20, 1970, p. 18.
  • "Two indicted as result of shooting," Asbury Park (NJ) Press, June 1, 1970, p. 10.
  • Blumenthal, Ralph, "Aniello Dellacroce dies at 71; reputed crime-group figure," New York Times, Dec. 4, 1985.
  • McFadden, Robert D., "Organized crime chief shot dead stepping from car on E. 46th St.," New York Times, Dec. 17, 1985.
  • Raab, Selwyn, "Authorities now say a slain Mafia aide was a major target," New York Times, Dec. 27, 1985.
  • "Charges stick to 'Teflon Don,'" Columbus (IN) Republic, April 3, 1992, p. 2.
  • Magnuson, Ed, "Hitting the Mafia," TIME, June 24, 2001.

Conti, Gregorio (1874-1919)

Born Comitini, Sicily, March 17, 1874.
Killed Pittsburgh, PA, Sept. 24, 1919.

Downtown Pittsburgh's earliest documented Mafia boss, Gregorio Conti was a duplicitous underworld leader and an unscrupulous businessman. His treachery appears to have been repaid through his assassination at the dawn of the U.S. Prohibition Era.

Conti's native town of Comitini was engaged in sulfur mining and in the farming of grapes, olives and citrus at the time of his birth to Giacomo and Gesua Terrana Conti. Gregorio Conti may have learned about wines and distilled spirits as a young man in Sicily. He appears to have run his own business before deciding to follow his brother - Dr. Gaetano Conti - across the Atlantic.

Gregorio Conti sailed from Palermo on Sept. 17, 1907, and arrived in New York harbor on Oct. 3. He left behind in Sicily his wife and their two young children. He was accompanied on the voyage by fellow Comitinesi Giuseppe Cusumano and Vincenzo Terrana. Cusumano was a nephew of Conti and a trained chemist. Terrana, a surgeon, appears to have been a relative of Conti's mother. All three continued on from New York to Pittsburgh, meeting up with Dr. Gaetano Conti at 29 Chatham Street in the heart of the city's central Hill District. (Dr. Conti maintained the same office until his death in 1927.)

Gaetano already was a man of some importance in the community, serving as physician for the Italian consulate at Pittsburgh. In 1909, Dr. Conti was involved in a criminal investigation of the consulate after his signature was found on phony papers documenting the physical incapacitation of Italian immigrants seeking to avoid military service in their native country. Dr. Conti and Vice Consul Natali reported that seals, stamps and other materials of the consul's office had been stolen by a short-term office worker and used to generate the fraudulent documents, which were then sold. One of several suspects in the case accused Dr. Conti of being behind the racket, saying he paid the doctor $70 for a certificate of incapacitation.

Gregorio Conti was naturalized a citizen of the U.S. early in 1913. Later in the year, his wife and their children sailed from Sicily to join him in Pittsburgh. Conti had opened a business, Pittsburgh Wine & Liquors, at 801 Wylie Avenue, a couple doors down from his brother's offices. The Conti family resided in an apartment above the business. Giuseppe Cusumano worked for his uncle.

Conti seems to have attained a leadership position in downtown Pittsburgh's Sicilian underworld organization at about the time that the city's most successful produce merchant, Salvatore "Banana King" Catanzaro was seriously hurt in a stabbing incident. Conti may have assumed leadership of an organization formerly run by Catanzaro. (As Catanzaro recovered in spring 1914, Pittsburgh produce merchants threw him a large party. The guests included a number of names linked with Sicilian organized crime in the region.)

Western Pennsylvania of that period was home to a large number of small Neapolitan, Calabrian and Sicilian criminal organizations. The Sicilian Mafia units were linked through a loose regional network.

Nick Gentile, whose memoirs recounted many events in early U.S. Mafia history, joined Conti in Pittsburgh in 1915. By then, Conti was well established as boss of the Hill District Mafia and was already rubbing many the wrong way. Gentile noted that Conti frequently picked fights with Cusumano (a problem Gentile resolved by sponsoring Cusumano as a Mafioso, entitled to respect), increased his profits by selling fraudulently labeled liquor and secretly cooperated in Neapolitan Camorra extortion of Sicilian residents.

Gentile claims that he initiated a personal war against the once-dominant Camorra that resulted in its complete capitulation to the Sicilian Mafia. By about 1917, Neapolitan and Calabrian gangs had been incorporated into a regional Mafia-dominated network.

In the spring of 1918, Gentile and grocery business partners Samuel DiBella and Orazio Leone (Leone and DiBella were likely related) were convicted of conspiring to defraud their suppliers out of $22,000 in produce. The men filed a legal appeal. Conti pressured successful fruit merchant J.C. Catalano to provide $4,000 bail for Gentile's release. Once out of prison, Gentile left the country to return to Sicily, and Catalano's bail was forfeited. The merchant demanded that Conti personally compensate him for the loss or acquire repayment through Gentile. Conti stalled for time.

J.C. Catalano (left) is photographed with other Pittsburgh
produce merchants in 1916. (Pittsburgh Gazette Times).

The following year, the Wartime Prohibition Act (too late to provide any Great War benefit but intended to remain in effect through demobilization) made the sale, manufacture and transport of alcoholic beverages illegal. That closed Conti's legitimate business. Any continued sale of alcohol would have exposed Conti to enforcement by Justice Department and its Bureau of Investigation.

In September, Conti suddenly decided that he, his family and his fortune would return to Sicily. This decision coincided with rumors that he recently had earned $5,500 by convincing some Italian purchasers from New Castle, PA, that 110 cases of bottled river water was actually 110 cases of whiskey.

Conti and his wife obtained passports on Sept. 12, 1919, stating that they needed to return to Italy immediately to settle Giovanna's family estate. They prepared to travel by train to New York City on Sept. 25 and then take a steamer to Italy in early October.

On the eve of their departure from Pittsburgh, Gregorio Conti was shot four times through the back while sitting in his automobile, at Twenty-first and Smallman Streets, with J.C. Catalano, J.C.'s cousin Philip Catalano and Orazio Leone. Conti was alive but unconscious when police arrived. He was dead upon arrival at St. Francis Hospital. The official cause of death was "shock and hemorrhage due to gunshot wounds through heart (murder)."

Pittsburgh Press, Sept. 24, 1919.
The Catalanos and Leone were apprehended. They admitted they were with Conti but claimed that a small man unknown to them jumped on the vehicle's runningboard, shot Conti and ran off before they could react to prevent it or detain the shooter. Police investigated the claim, though Captain of Detectives Clyde Edeburn doubted that anyone outside of the automobile could have shot Conti through the back of the driver's seat. Edeburn also noted that the murder weapon was recovered and turned out to be a pistol that required time-consuming manual cocking before each shot could be fired.

Conti's immediate successor as underworld boss of downtown Pittsburgh is unknown. Salvatore Calderone, an Apollo-based Mafia elder statesman and head man of the regional Mafia network, probably played a role in managing the organization. The next documented Mafia boss in Pittsburgh was Stefano Monastero.



  • Certificate of Death, Allegheny County Pennsylvania, file no. 88497, registered no. 7570, filed Sept. 26, 1919.
  • Declaration of Intention, no. 13546, U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, Oct. 15, 1910.
  • Declaration of Intention, no. 13547, U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, Oct. 15, 1910.
  • Gentile, Nick, with Felice Chilante, Vita di Capomafia, Rome: Crescenzi Allendorf, 1993, p. 51-54, 56-57, 62-67.
  • Naturalization Petition, no 7775, U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, Nov. 6, 1912.
  • Passenger manifest of S.S. Argentina, departed Palermo on June 14, arrived New York City on June 28, 1911.
  • Passenger manifest of S.S. Canada, departed Palermo on Nov. 5, 1913, arrived New York on Nov. 17, 1913.
  • Passenger manifest of S.S. Carpathia, departed Palermo on Sept. 17, 1907, arrived New York City on Oct. 3, 1907.
  • Passenger manifest of S.S. Ivernia, departed Palermo on April 24, 1912, arrived New York on May 9, 1912.
  • Passport application, no. 117780, U.S. District Court at Pittsburgh PA, Sept. 12, 1919.
  • Passport application, no. 117781, U.S. District Court at Pittsburgh, PA, Sept. 12, 1919.
  • Pennsylvania Wills and Probate Records, Allegheny County,
  • United States Census of 1920, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County, Ward 8, Enumeration District 444.
  • World War I draft registration card, serial no. 3830, order no. A663, stamped 37-1-21C, Pittsburgh, PA, Sept. 12, 1918.

  • "Fruit dealer gets damages," Pittsburgh Press, May 5, 1911, p. 3.
  • "Gigantic fraud practiced upon Italian consul," San Francisco Call, Aug. 15, 1909, p. 25.
  • "Italian graft arrests," Philadelphia Inquirer, Aug. 18, 1909, p. 3.
  • "Many attend banquet; all banana merchants," Pittsburgh Gazette Times, May 8, 1914, p. 2.
  • "Indictments," Pittsburgh Daily Post, Jan. 11, 1917, p. 12.
  • "Court news," Pittsburgh Daily Post, May 24, 1918, p. 14.
  • "Men are convicted for $22,000 fraud," Pittsburgh Press, May 27, 1918, p. 7.
  • "Court news," Pittsburgh Daily Post, Sept. 6, 1918, p. 13.
  • "Police take three suspects in Conti murder," Pittsburgh Gazette Times, Sept. 26, 1919, p. 1.
  • "Nation goes dry under wartime act," New York Times, July 1, 1919, p. 1.
  • "Murdered in Auto," Pittsburgh Press, Sept. 24, 1919, p. 1.
  • "Italian is shot to death at Pittsburgh," Harrisburg PA Evening News, Sept. 24, 1919, p. 1.
  • "Wine merchant foully killed," Wilkes Barre Times Leader, Sept. 25, 1919, p. 18.
  • "Three held in Conti murder case," Pittsburgh Post, Sept. 26, 1919, p. 1.
  • "Police weave strong web about Italians held in murder case," Pittsburgh Press, Sept. 26, 1919, p. 34.
  • "Police take three suspects in Conti murder," Pittsburgh Gazette Times, Sept. 26, 1919, p. 1.
  • "Bail refused accused trio in Conti case," Pittsburgh Gazette Times, Sept. 27, 1919.
  • "Conti murderer now known to detectives," Pittsburgh Press, Sept. 27, 1919, p. 10.
  • "Conti murder suspects held for coroner," Pittsburgh Post, Sept. 28, 1919, p. 12.
  • "Police still lack clue in Conti case," Pittsburgh Gazette Times, Sept. 30, 1919, p. 9.
  • "Three men jailed in murder case," Pittsburgh Post, Oct. 3, 1919, p. 2.
  • "Three accused as accessory in Conti case," Pittsburgh Gazette Times, Oct. 3, 1919, p. 12.
  • "3 murder suspects held without bail," Pittsburgh Press, Oct. 3, 1919, p. 29.
  • "Murder suspects are released on bail," Pittsburgh Press, Oct. 5, 1919, p. 10.
  • "In Pennsylvania," Indiana PA Patriot, Oct. 11, 1919, p. 4.
  • "Dr. Gaetano Conti," Pittsburgh Press, Oct. 26, 1927, p. 8.

Racco, Rocco (1868-1909)

b. Grotteria, Calabria, Italy, 1868
d. (hanging) New Castle, PA, Oct. 26, 1909

Rocco Racco served for a time as leader of a Calabrian criminal organization in the area of Hillsville, PA. The testimony of rival gangsters helped to convict Racco of killing a state law enforcement officer, and Racco was executed in 1909.

Racco, born to Giuseppe and Maria Camisi Racco in Grotteria, Italy, arrived in the United States in the summer of 1899. At the time, he had relatives and friends in New York City and upstate and western New York. He initially traveled to Albany and then moved on to western New York. Within a short time, he was settled in the mining community of Hillsville, PA. Italian immigrants in the area generally worked in limestone mines that served Pittsburgh's steel industry. Racco did some work as a miner, opened a store near what was known as the Peanut Quarry, invested in an insurance company and engaged in a variety of extortion.

The men of the region were victimized by a primitive criminal racket, closely resembling a pyramid scheme, in which they were compelled on penalty of death to become members of a Calabrian "Black Hand Society." Membership money flowed upward toward the leader, who retired after a time, turning the lucrative post over to his successor. The society in Hillsville was said to be linked with similar organizations in major U.S. cities. As leader of the local society, Racco set membership dues, targeted new victims and passed death sentences.

A rebellious faction in the Hillsville Black Hand Society rose up against Racco early in 1906. A quarry workers strike split the underworld organization, with Racco and his loyalists siding with employers and rebels siding with striking workers. Racco quickly found himself facing charges of violating the underworld code by sleeping with another society member's wife, an offense punishable by death. A panel of Black Hand leaders from New York City, Buffalo and elsewhere was assembled to sit in judgment on the Hillsville boss. Racco was saved from the death penalty but removed from his leadership post.

In the same period, State Game Warden Seely Houk became terribly unpopular with the men of Hillsville's Italian colony as he strictly enforced hunting and fishing laws. In the summer of 1905, Houk was himself arrested for mistreating an Italian boy who violated the law by fishing on Sunday. Houk was convicted of assault and battery but managed to postpone sentencing.

Luigi Ritorto, a clerk employed in Racco's store, went hunting for ground hogs in February 1906. Ritorto borrowed Racco's shotgun and "Paolo,"  a light-colored hunting dog that was the favorite of the several dogs owned by Racco. Game Warden Houk spotted Ritorto as he entered a wooded area near the Peanut Quarry. As he noticed Houk, Ritorto ran into the woods. The dog, Paolo, ran toward the game warden. Houk pulled the trigger on his shotgun, and the dog was killed. When Racco learned of the incident, he openly swore to kill Houk. While possibly overcome by emotion at the loss of his favorite dog, Racco also may have been hoping to improve his standing in the colony by squaring off with the hated Houk and perhaps return to leadership of the Black Hand Society.

Early in March, 1906, Houk disappeared. Shortly after that, Rocco Racco's brother-in-law Vincenzo Murdocca left Hillsville and sailed back to his Italian homeland. In April, when Houk failed to appear at his sentencing hearing for the assault and battery of the boy who dared to fish on a Sunday, authorities went looking for the game warden.

Houk's remains were discovered in the muddy banks of the Mahoning River where railroad tracks passed a wooded area of Hillsville. The man's chest had been hit with a load of shot. Another apparent close-range shotgun blast had struck Houk in the head, tearing away the lower portion of his face.

The Pennsylvania Board of Game Commissioners set a reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of Houk's killers. Private citizens pooled resources to call in the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. Several Pinkerton men, including the accomplished Francis P. Dimaio, went undercover in Hillsville to gain information on the Houk killing and the Black Hand Society.

In September 1906, Racco and his wife were convicted of stealing a sum of money. Though not yet named as a suspect in the Houk murder, Racco was known to be a former Black Hand Society leader and was widely believed to have taken part in the recent slaying of local resident William Duff. After convincing local friends to contribute $2,000 bail, Racco was released pending appeal and promptly disappeared. Detectives located him in mid-October in New York City, where he was preparing to board a steamship for Italy. His appeal was denied and, in January, he began serving a sentence of a year in prison.

Just one week later, much of the leadership of the Black Hand Society in the region was arrested. This seems due in large part to information obtained by Pinkerton agent Dimaio. The current boss of the society, Joe Bagnato managed to escape to Italy with an estimated $30,000 just as the arrests were made. Several other Black Hand leaders were convicted of blackmailing, assault, robbery and other offenses.

Racco's prison sentence had almost expired when a local judge had him brought to New Castle, Pennsylvania, to face additional Black Hand robbery charges. In May, 1908, Racco was charged with conspiring with Vincenzo Murdocca in the murder of Seely Houk. Agent Dimaio met repeated with Racco in an effort to have him confess to his involvement and implicate Murdocca. Racco refused to cooperate: "I will not speak. I will go to the gallows a brave man."

Racco adhered to the underworld code of silence even when other Black Hand Society members testified against him in court. On Sept. 19, 1908, Racco was convicted of first-degree murder. The local press reported that he was in good humor when he received the news. A legal appeal was defeated in March of 1909, and Racco was formally sentenced to die by hanging. Still, Dimaio attempted to obtain Racco's cooperation against the escaped Murdocca, but still Racco refused. A final appeal, financed by contributions from the Italian community, was brought to the Pennsylvania State Supreme Court. The governor granted a stay of execution until Oct. 26, so the appeal could be processed.

On the eve of his execution, Racco informed the press that he would make a statement the next morning as the noose was placed around his neck. The local press wondered if he would reveal the workings of the Black Hand Society or his accomplice in the Houk killing. At 10 o'clock on Oct. 26, Racco offered only a denial of any role in the killing: "Gentleman, I did not see Seely Houk killed. I did not see any one kill him, and I have no suspicion of any person. I pardon everybody and expect to go to Jesus right now. Goodbye."


  •   "Black Hand Society (Seeley Houk Murder) - Hillsville PA," Lawrence County Memoirs,, May 2014, accessed May 4, 2015.
  •   Commonwealth vs. Rocco Racco, Court of Oyer & Terminer,  Lawrence County, PA, No. I, June Term, 1908. (Thanks to Margaret Janco.)
  •   Horan, James D., The Pinkertons: The Detective Dynasty that Made History, New York: Bonanza Books, 1967.
  •   Horan, James D., and Howard Swiggett, The Pinkerton Story, London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1952.
  •   Passenger manifest of S.S. Tartar Prince, departed Naples on June 23, 1899, arrived New York City on July 9, 1899.
  •   Roco Racco death certificate, no. 94896, filed Oct. 27, 1909, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Bureau of Vital Statistics.
  •   Seely Houk Murder and the Black Hand Investigation, Box 117, Folders 1, 3, 4, 5, Criminal Case Files, 1861-1962, Pinkerton's National Detective Agency, Library of Congress Manuscript Division.
  •   Warren, Louis S., "The Hunter's Game," New York Times: Books,, 1997, accessed May 4, 2015.

  •   "Hillsville Italians found insurance co.," New Castle PA Herald, Feb. 10, 1906, p. 1.
  •   "Charter notice," New Castle PA Herald, Feb. 19, 1906, p. 2. 
  •   "Charter notice," New Castle PA Herald, Feb. 26, 1906, p. 7.
  •   "Big reward out for murderers," Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette, April 26, 1906, p. 4.
  •   "Corpse of game warden lies on river's bottom," Pittsburgh Weekly Gazette, April 27, 1906, p. 1.
  •   "Finding of body explains a mystery," Pittsburgh Daily Post, April 27, 1906, p. 1.
  •   "True bills found against twenty-six by the grand jury," New Castle PA Herald, June 6, 1906, p. 8.
  •   "Duff murder trial begins," New Castle PA Herald, June 8, 1908, p. 1.
  •   "Assassin may be captured," New Castle Pa Herald, Aug. 29, 1906, p. 3.
  •   "Grand jury cases for coming term," New Castle PA Herald, Sept. 1, 1906, p. 12.
  •   "Law's heavy hand," New Castle PA Herald, Sept. 14, 1906, p. 1.
  •   "Rocco Racco in custody," New Castle PA Herald, Sept. 15, 1906, p. 1.
  •   "Friend of murderer of 'Squire Wm. Duff now behind the bars," New Castle PA News, Oct. 17, 1906, p. 1.
  •   "Rocco Racco wants trial," New Castle PA News, Nov. 28, 1906, p. 5.
  •   "Rocco Racco case is before court," New Castle PA News, Dec. 5, 1906, p. 16.
  •   "Rocco Racco refused new trial yesterday; opinions handed down," New Castle PA Herald, Feb. 26, 1907, p. 2.
  •   "Judge Porter has secrets of dreaded Black Hand society," New Castle PA Herald, March 5, 1907, p. 1.
  •   "Five leaders of 'Black Hand' are taken by police," New Castle PA Herald, March 11, 1907, p. 1.
  •   "Five Black Hand men jailed at New Castle," Pittsburgh Post, March 11, 1907, p. 5.
  •   "Black Hand suspects get hearing last night; will be tried in June," New Castle PA Herald, March 15, 1907, p. 16.
  •   "Five alleged leaders of Black Hand society," New Castle PA Herald, March 20, 1907, p. 1
  •   "Black Hand men indicted by grand bury," New Castle PA News, June 12, 1907, p. 7.
  •   "Father-in-law of Rocco Racco behind the bars," New Castle PA Herald, July 16, 1907, p. 1.
  •   "Blackmail charged vs. Black Hand men," New Castle PA Herald, June 17, 1907, p. 1.
  •   "Italians are found guilty by the jury," New Castle PA News, June 19, 1907, p. 2.
  •   "In gloom of state prison, Racca and pals of Black Hand Society may find time to repent of crimes," New Castle PA Herald, June 22, 1907, p. 1.
  •   "Wilkinson gets L. Luccisano his release," New Castle PA Herald, July 17, 1907, p. 1.
  •   "Houk's slayer may be caught," New Castle PA Herald, Oct. 15, 1907, p. 1.
  •   "Real king of Black Hand in this county is now in jail here," New Castle PA Herald, Dec. 30, 1907, p. 8.
  •   "Calaute confesses he was with those who killed Houk," New Castle PA Herald, Jan. 11, 1908, p. 1.
  •   "Jim Brown lands his man safe in jail," New Castle PA Herald, Jan. 23, 1908, p. 1.
  •   "Murderer Calute out," New Castle PA Herald, Jan. 27, 1908, p. 1.
  •   "News of nearby towns," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 28, 1908, p. 8.
  •   "Rocco Racco isn't guilty," New Castle PA Herald, May 29, 1908, p. 3.
  •   "Three pen prisoners are here to testify," New Castle PA Herald, June 3, 1908, p. 8.
  •   "24 true bills by grand jury," New Castle PA Herald, June 5, 1908, p. 3.
  •   "Duff murder trial begins," New Castle PA Herald, June 8, 1908, p. 1.
  •   "Rocco Racco's trial may be continued," New Castle PA Herald, June 8, 1908, p. 3.
  •   "Calaute proves a bad witness today," New Castle PA Herald, June 10, 1908, p. 1.
  •   "'Not on your life,' says Joe Calaute when asked if he were a married man," New Castle PA Herald, June 10, 1908, p. 1.
  •   "Two lawyers named as counsel for Racco," New Castle PA Herald, June 10, 1908, p. 8.
  •   "Sanati's letters to Racco are read," New Castle PA Herald, June 11, 1908, p. 1.
  •   "Racco in good humor," Pittsburgh Daily Post, Sept. 21, 1908, p. 8.
  •   "'It's just as I expected' is Rocco's comment," New Castle PA Herald, March 2, 1909, p. 1.
  •   "Rocco Racco to be hanged," New Castle PA Herald, March 9, 1909, p. 1.
  •   "Rocco Racco receiving aid of Black Hand?" New Castle PA Herald, March 18, 1909, p. 1.
  •   "Racco appeals from sentence," New Castle PA Herald, March 24, 1909, p. 10.
  •   Brown, James H., "James Brown tells facts about Mafia," New Castle PA Herald, April 17, 1909, p. 3.
  •   "Respite is granted," Harrisburg PA Telegraph, Sept. 17, 1909, p. 1.
  •   "Black Hand leader faces death calmly," Pittsburgh Daily Post, Oct. 26, 1909, p. 2.
  •   "Hanged at New Castle," Washington D.C. Evening Star, Oct. 27, 1909, p. 1.
  •   Obituary, Butler PA Citizen, Oct. 27, 1909, p. 1.
  •   "Denied guilt as he swung," Montour PA American, Oct. 28, 1909, p. 1.